Agriculture is defined as an art and science of cultivating plants and keeping of livestock. The agricultural sector has undergone a lot of developments and technological advancements since the ancient time. Agriculture has a long history which dates back to a thousand years ago when the early humans used to grow wild grains and followed by keeping indigenous domestic animals.
Modern agriculture has been adopted by most of the developed countries. Such countries practice agriculture as a significant economic activity as well as for food security purposes. The geographical distribution of agriculture worldwide is majorly influenced by climate and the economy of a country. Agricultural products are broadly categorized as fuels, food, fiber, and raw materials. Rich agricultural countries include but not limited to Netherlands, China, Unites States, Denmark, Japan, and Brazil.
China is the world leading producer of most foodstuffs which include rice and wheat. Besides that, China also appears at the top in the production of corn (second) and vegetables such as onions and cabbage. Despite China being arid and mountainous, the southern and eastern regions have rich, productive soil for farming. It is not strange to note that although China is the leading producer of most foods, it is also at the top in terms of notable food importer countries. This is attributed to its large population such that internally produced foods are not sufficient to feed its citizens.
Unites States is a well-known top producer of agricultural food. The production is spread across the United states with the largest producing states: California, Nebraska, Texas, Iowa, and Illinois. The major agricultural products derived from United States land includes but not limited to apples, corn, cotton, lettuce, wheat, cranberries, milk, beef, pork, chicken and soybeans.
When it comes to animal foods production, Denmark is regarded as the home of such agricultural products. The main animal’s products produced in Denmark include pork, poultry, dairy, and beef. More than half of Denmark land is devoted to agriculture to produce cereals, barley, sugar beets, rye, potatoes, wheat, turnips, and oats.
The Brazilian economy is agriculture oriented. It is a well-known main producer of sugarcane which dates to the ancient time of the European colony. A more significant percentage of Brazil land about 30% is used for crop production. The Brazilian fertile and productive soil with a warm fruit-friendly climate favor the production of crops such as sugarcane, pineapples, coffee, oranges, corn, papaya, soybeans, and coconut.
Netherlands is the home of diverse agriculture. It is involved in the cultivation of numerous plants as well as a wide range of livestock keeping. Most of the Netherland’s land under cultivation are derived from reclamation known as polders. Netherlands’ agricultural products include bulbs, hyacinth, crocus, daffodil, narcissus, sugar beet, barley, dairy, and pig meat.
Farming and fishing are the major sectors in Japan as far as agriculture is concerned in the country. Most of the Japanese agriculture is mechanized with rice being the primary crop grown. The mild and humid climate favors the production of rice. Besides rice, wheat, soybeans, barley, a variety of fruits and vegetables are other crops that are grown in Japan.
What problems are farmers facing today
Whether a country is a developed country or a developing country, agriculture is very important. That’s because agriculture not only feeds people but agriculture also produces raw materials for various industries. Actually, agriculture provides employment to a lot of people. Nevertheless, a lot of countries do not produce enough food to feed even their own people. Actually, agriculture is a troubled sector in a lot of countries. In fact, agriculture is also a vulnerable sector.
Farmers in most parts of the world undergo post-harvest losses which contribute to high percentage losses and sometimes farmers could lose everything. Post-harvest losses are associated with poor or inadequate storage facilities and conditions. Many farmers do not have the proper storage facilities needed to store their harvest. This poor storage condition creates an appropriate environment for storage pests and diseases to manifest themselves. Wet conditions in the stores provide a room for the growth of fungal diseases like aflatoxins.
Farmers currently are living in fear of total loss of crops due to unreliable rainfall especially those who depend on rain-fed farming. Climate change poses a significant threat to the global food system. Those depending on irrigation are not at ease as well because as climate changes, the available resources for water also change hence becoming a problem to the farmers.
How crops interact with their surrounding affects their survival. Ecology defines how organisms interact with each other. Pests and diseases cause almost eighty-ninety percent loss and sometimes a total loss in the case of heavy infestation. The pests, weeds, and diseases are not the only hazardous factors but also the cost of managing the crop. Currently crop breeders are working hard to produce resistant varieties to some pests, weeds, and diseases but still, they find it costly.
In the economics sector, things are not that level as well. Farmers have many problems here as well. Most governments do not promote local product consumption but imported products which is inauspicious to farmers. This makes the farmers end up selling their produce at a throw price which is unprofitable and unacceptable. These among the many problems facing farmers should be discussed collectively and responsibly.
However, there is also some good news. A lot of people are taking interest in gardening.